ITC&M-International Textile Consulting &Management


Fibre Mix Selection


Fibre Mix Selection for Quality

1.Introduction

Itru Fibre Tester UAK-1 also includes Fibre Mix Selection Pc-Program .

Fibre Mix Selection Pc-Program has been developed for:

•Itru UAK-S2 Fibre/Fabric Information System
•Classical Testing Instruments (2.5 and 50 percent span length measurement, Presley 1/8 inch and Micronaire
•Itru UAK-1 + Cotton Classification System

Fibre Mix Selection Pc-Program makes use of following input values from Itru Fibre Tester UAK-1+
2,5% SLY1-Fibre Graph.Weighted........mm:
50,0% SLY2-Fibre Graph Weighhted.. ....mm:
Fibre Fineness.U.....micronaire.........:
Presley-1/8in-Fibre Strength cn/tex.....:

More Information about Itru Fibre Tester UAK-1+ Cotton Classification

This program "FIBRE MIX SEARCH & SELECTION CONTROL by ITRU GROUP LTD" has been developed by ITRU GROUP LTD -International Textile Consulting & Management. FMSSC PC-PROGRAM could be used on all IBM compatible PCs to optimize spinning process. This program has been prepared for cotton fibres and cotton spinning. A part of the program could also be used for other short staple fibres spinning processes. PROGRAM has consists of following sub-PC-programs :
a)Fibre Mix Samples Search and Selection Data Bank
b)Fibre Samples Selection and Pareto Analyses and also supported by Bale Management and Yarn ENGINEERING PC-PROGRAMS as well.


1.2.1 Fibre-Mix Search and Selection Data Bank

Cotton fibre is commercially judged bye its main properties; staple length,color,micronaire,presley at zero gauge etc. To purchase the cotton fibre as it seems to an eye,without using any testing instruments is rather a risky attempt. In order to obtain optimum quality with minimum cost,oneshould purchase the right raw materially for the required yarn properties. Therefore,the selection of the raw material would depend the required quality of yarn and its end-use. After supplying the appropriate material,measurements should go on during the processes as the fibre parameters are not constant and modify in each process. This program has been developed through extensive research work carried out on carded,combed and rotor spinning mills,and measurements are conducted on cotton samples taken all round the world. Many cotton fibres were tested byfibrogram,HVI ,Steolometre and Fibre Tester UAK-1 the relevant correlation were developed and tested in actual mill running conditions.

The intention of the program is to select the most proper type of cotton according to the spinning data:

-Count of yarn in tex
-Turns per cm
-Type of process (Carded Ring-Combed Ring-Rotor Spinning) and present most important fibre parameters of the cotton fibres tested.

Fibre Mix Selection Data Bank consists of fibre data values and fed by the FIBRE SAMPLES PARETO ANALYSES PC-PROGRAM. Therefore,any sample testing carried out in the mill could be used in future purposes for selecting the most optimum cotton type. Therefore, DATABANK grows at each fibre testing. In the DATA BANK more than 400 cotton samples from all round the world has been included. And this Data Bank could be used any time for any type fibre mix selection. Therefore,it is possible to compare the different types of cotton from any part of the world and choose the most appropriate type of cotton for processing.

Table 1.1 shows the recommended various types of cotton. From this table one could compare the projected yarn strength values of different types and choose the most optimum one for the end use such as weaving warp yarn , weaving weft yarn and hosiery. From projected blowroom+card waste loss and short fibre content one could also estimate the end break rate and yield performance of the each cotton type. It is clear that this PC-PROGRAM gives many information on cotton spinning. But it also requires excellent knowledge of textile technologist if one needs to get maximum efficiency from the PC-PROGRAM.

It is clear that CIM systems has been developed by many companies on a worldwide basis i.e. on-line quality and production control systems now exits in many spinning and weaving mills. But CIM systems do not eliminate the existing problems. The data gathered from the systems should becollected and analyzed. Therefore CIM systems require very qualified textile technologists to achieve better running efficiencies in spinning and weaving mills. On the other hand PC-PROGRAMS could analyze these collected data. PC-PROGRAMS could be designed on three basis

a)Statistical calculations
b)Technological conceptions and Knowledge based
c)Both

SL1
SL2
LM
CVN
LG
LUHM
LS
SFC
U
FM3
HS
CN
NLC
RKM

=2.5% Span length in mm (weighted from UAK-1 Fibre Tester)-Input
=50% Span length in mm(weighted from UAK-1 Fibre Tester)-Input
=Mean fibre length by number in mm
=CV % of fibre length distribution by number divided by 10
=Mean fibre length by fibre weight in mm
=Upper half mean length in mm
=Staple length in 1/16 inch
=Short fibre content by fibre number
=Micronaire(From UAK-1 Fibre Tester)-Input
=Maturity ratio
=Standart fibre fineness mtex
=Fibre strength in cN/tex for 1/8 inch gauge (From UAK-1 Fibre Tester)-Input
=Non-lint content of cotton
=Single end projected yarn strength in cN/tex

Input:
TURNS PER CM..................11.53
COUNT OF YARN IN TEX.......... 9.66
SPINNING PROCESS :COMBED RING SPINNING

Output:
Cotton Type

      SL1   SL2    LM   CVN  LG   LUHM  LS    SFC   U  FM3   HS    CN  NLC RKM 
 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
 Nazilli Delsore 
      33.81 14.54 24.19  4.0 29.3 34.22 20.9  5.5 3.50 0.88 161.8 26.6 3.3 20.31 
 LONG STAPLE-LONG- CARDED&COMBED 
 KoycegizM 
      30.16 15.38 23.25  3.8 26.4 30.47 18.9  3.5 3.50 0.91 148.4 25.6 3.6 22.40 
 MEDIUM STAPLE-MEDIUM TO LONG CARDED/COMBED 
 Bergama S 
      30.13 14.28 22.47  3.9 26.2 30.46 18.8  5.4 3.60 0.89 161.0 24.2 4.2 18.75 
 MEDIUM STAPLE-MEDIUM TO LONG CARDED/COMBED 
 Manisa  S 
      30.31 14.01 22.36  3.9 26.3 30.65 18.9  5.9 3.40 0.83 174.6 22.9 4.7 16.90 
 MEDIUM STAPLE-MEDIUM TO LONG CARDED/COMBED 
 TurgutluS 
      30.30 14.20 22.49  3.9 26.3 30.64 18.9  5.5 3.80 0.90 171.5 23.2 4.6 17.60 
 MEDIUM STAPLE-MEDIUM TO LONG CARDED/COMBED 
 Milas   E 
      30.41 14.40 22.67  3.9 26.4 30.75 19.0  5.2 3.40 0.87 156.0 25.0 3.9 19.62 
 MEDIUM STAPLE-MEDIUM TO LONG CARDED/COMBED 
 Salihli E 
      30.23 14.72 22.82  3.8 26.3 30.56 18.9  4.6 4.00 0.97 156.6 24.7 4.0 20.17 
 MEDIUM STAPLE-MEDIUM TO LONG CARDED/COMBED 
 Milas   E 
      30.41 14.40 22.67  3.9 26.4 30.75 19.0  5.2 3.40 0.87 156.0 25.0 3.9 19.62 
 MEDIUM STAPLE-MEDIUM TO LONG CARDED/COMBED 
 Salihli E 
      30.23 14.72 22.82  3.8 26.3 30.56 18.9  4.6 4.00 0.97 156.6 24.7 4.0 20.17 
 MEDIUM STAPLE-MEDIUM TO LONG CARDED/COMBED 
 Rahad ShambBSG 
      33.34 14.50 23.97  3.9 28.9 33.74 20.6  5.5 4.30 0.92 192.5 23.0 4.7 17.08 
 LONG STAPLE-LONG- CARDED&COMBED 
 Sudan Barakat 
      33.58 14.31 23.94  4.0 29.1 33.99 20.7  5.9 3.60 0.95 141.2 29.5 2.3 22.46 
 LONG STAPLE-LONG- CARDED&COMBED 
 IsraelPima Maori/s 
      31.82 15.04 23.71  3.9 27.7 32.17 19.8  4.4 3.40 0.96 130.9 29.8 2.2 24.60 
 MEDIUM STAPLE-MEDIUM TO LONG CARDED/COMBED 
 Giza 70 G 
      33.06 15.12 24.28  3.9 28.7 33.44 20.5  4.6 4.10 0.98 159.1 26.3 3.4 21.40 
 LONG STAPLE-LONG- CARDED&COMBED 
 Russ.Varna/87 
      33.44 15.83 24.93  3.9 29.1 33.81 20.7  3.6 3.60 0.97 136.9 29.9 2.2 25.62 
 LONG STAPLE-LONG- CARDED&COMBED 
 Russ.Petro/86 
      33.49 15.85 24.97  3.9 29.1 33.86 20.7  3.6 3.20 0.90 137.3 29.9 2.2 25.60 
 LONG STAPLE-LONG- CARDED&COMBED 
 Peruvian Tanguis 
      31.03 15.97 24.02  3.8 27.2 31.35 19.4  2.8 4.90 0.96 210.1 20.1 6.0 18.08 
 LONG STAPLE-LONG- CARDED&COMBED 
  

Optimum selection of fibre type would depend upon the yarn end use which will depend upon following factors:

-Projected single end yarn strength
-Short fibre content % which is related to the end break rate and hairiness
-Non-lint content % which is a key for blowroom+card loss
-Cost price and yield performance
-Required mean yarn strength in cN/tex

It becomes very clear that best cotton is not the one which gives highest yarn strength but most compatible one with the yarn quality. Therefore,one should carefully analyses these results and choose the optimum cotton type for the selection. So PC-PROGRAMS certainly bring new conceptions to the spinners.

1.2.2 Fibre Samples Selection and Pareto Analyses

1.2.2.1 Sample Selection

The cotton samples were tested for comparison purposes before purchase actually take place. For testing there are many testing instruments available. These are fibre-length,strength,micronaire and sometimes non-lint content percentage. However,these values do not correlate very well with the yarn performance in weaving or knitting if one consider them separately .

All the fibre parameters should be considered as a whole to distinguish the cotton samples from one another. Therefore,selection of a most appropriate cotton sample for the spinning should be compatible with the actual mill running conditions and spinning data. The usual procedure is to have one blend for each type of process i.e. carded,combed and rotor. In order to achieve optimum spinning conditions following plan should be drawn for each type of spinning process.

• Count range to be spun
• Twist range
• Yarn end-use i.e. warp,weft or hosiery
• Yield ratio i.e. raw material/yarn performance
• End-break rate at each stage of processing
• Type of weaving or knitting machine
• Cost of raw material

It is possible to achieve optimum quality if these points are taken into consideration. We do not intend to get higher quality but optimum quality of yarn from the raw material selection to optimize the manufacturing costs and to get optimum results. In actual spinning conditions mills organize their blend according to count range. Cotton fibres could be classified into five classes according to the count,twist multiplier and processing organization as shown below.

2.5 Span Length in mm Count of Yarn in Tex Fibre Class
25.40 32> Short
27.18 20 Medium
30.98 15 Medium to long
34.00 12 Long
38.80 7 Extra long


However,there is a large variation within each class and between classes. Nowadays,spinners try to spin finer counts medium to long type of cottons such as 12 tex combed yarn . Therefore,the trend is to get finest count for a given fibre class group with optimum weaving and knitting performance.

We would like to spin 19.68 tex carded yarn and there are ten samples to be tested. We have Fibre Tester UAK-1 testing instruments in our lab. FIBRE SAMPLE SELECTION PC-PROGRAM here analyses these ten samples and gives the projected single end yarn strength. From these projected single end yarn strength one could select the optimum cotton type to spin in mill. The following list gives an example of ten cotton samples result.

 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ 
       Carded Ring Spinning :  Turns per cm............: 9.05 
                               Count of yarn in tex....:19.68 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 
 Type of Fibre...........................:TOGO ALTO-S 
 2.5 % Span length value in mm.......................................:28.88 
 50 % Span length value in mm........................................:13.79 
 Mean Fibre Length by number in mm...................................:21.62 
 Mean Fibre Length by Fibre Weight in mm.............................:25.20 
 % of Coefficient of Fibre Length Variation by fibre number..........:40.75 
 Short Fibre Content by Fibre Number.................................: 6.08 
 Effective Length in mm..............................................:32.83 
 Upper Half Mean Length in mm........................................:29.20 
 % of Causticaire Maturity ..........................................:76.96 
 Fibre Fineness in mtex..............................................:176.42 
 Percentage of Mature fibres.........................................: 77.33 
 Fibre Strength in cN/tex at 1/8 in gauge............................:21.84 
 Classer length in 16 th of an inch..................................:18.13 
 % of Calculated non-lint content....................................: 5.18 
 Projected Neps/gram in card sliver..................................:44.36 
 % of Projected Waste lost total(blowroom+plus cards)................: 6.98 
 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 
 Projected single end yarn strength in cN/tex........................:16.36 
 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 
 MEDIUM STAPLE-MEDIUM TO LONG-CARDED/COMBED 
  
 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ 
       Carded Ring Spinning :  Turns per cm............: 9.05 
                               Count of yarn in tex....:19.68 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 
 Type of Fibre...........................:AUSTRALIAN ANDY 
 2.5 % Span length value in mm.......................................:29.25 
 50 % Span length value in mm........................................:13.11 
 Mean Fibre Length by number in mm...................................:21.30 
 Mean Fibre Length by Fibre Weight in mm.............................:25.47 
 % of Coefficient of Fibre Length Variation by fibre number..........:44.23 
 Short Fibre Content by Fibre Number.................................: 7.43 
 Effective Length in mm..............................................:33.50 
 Upper Half Mean Length in mm........................................:29.59 
 % of Causticaire Maturity ..........................................:75.97 
 Fibre Fineness in mtex..............................................:183.49 
 Percentage of Mature fibres.........................................: 75.90 
 Fibre Strength in cN/tex at 1/8 in gauge............................:21.53 
 Classer length in 16 th of an inch..................................:18.30 
 % of Calculated non-lint content....................................: 5.32 
 Projected Neps/gram in card sliver..................................:56.58 
 % of Projected Waste lost total(blowroom+plus cards)................: 7.11 
 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 
 Projected single end yarn strength in cN/tex........................:14.03 
 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 
 MEDIUM STAPLE-MEDIUM TO LONG-CARDED/COMBED 
 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ 
       Carded Ring Spinning :  Turns per cm............: 9.05 
                               Count of yarn in tex....:19.68 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 
 Type of Fibre...........................:AUSTRALIAN NICE 
 2.5 % Span length value in mm.......................................:29.56 
 50 % Span length value in mm........................................:13.78 
 Mean Fibre Length by number in mm...................................:21.89 
 Mean Fibre Length by Fibre Weight in mm.............................:25.77 
 % of Coefficient of Fibre Length Variation by fibre number..........:42.07 
 Short Fibre Content by Fibre Number.................................: 6.19 
 Effective Length in mm..............................................:33.70 
 Upper Half Mean Length in mm........................................:29.89 
 % of Causticaire Maturity ..........................................:77.73 
 Fibre Fineness in mtex..............................................:177.32 
 Percentage of Mature fibres.........................................: 78.42 
 Fibre Strength in cN/tex at 1/8 in gauge............................:22.19 
 Classer length in 16 th of an inch..................................:18.51 
 % of Calculated non-lint content....................................: 5.03 
 Projected Neps/gram in card sliver..................................:45.06 
 % of Projected Waste lost total(blowroom+plus cards)................: 6.85 
 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 
 Projected single end yarn strength in cN/tex........................:16.42 
 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 
 MEDIUM STAPLE-MEDIUM TO LONG-CARDED/COMBED 
  
 
 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ 
       Carded Ring Spinning :  Turns per cm............: 9.05 
                               Count of yarn in tex....:19.68 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 
  
 Type of Fibre...........................:GREECE MABAL 
 2.5 % Span length value in mm.......................................:27.07 
 50 % Span length value in mm........................................:12.04 
 Mean Fibre Length by number in mm...................................:19.65 
 Mean Fibre Length by Fibre Weight in mm.............................:23.57 
 % of Coefficient of Fibre Length Variation by fibre number..........:44.65 
 Short Fibre Content by Fibre Number.................................: 9.62 
 Effective Length in mm..............................................:31.03 
 Upper Half Mean Length in mm........................................:27.39 
 % of Causticaire Maturity ..........................................:74.46 
 Fibre Fineness in mtex..............................................:168.56 
 Percentage of Mature fibres.........................................: 73.67 
 Fibre Strength in cN/tex at 1/8 in gauge............................:21.67 
 Classer length in 16 th of an inch..................................:17.03 
 % of Calculated non-lint content....................................: 5.26 
 Projected Neps/gram in card sliver..................................:94.11 
 % of Projected Waste lost total(blowroom+plus cards)................: 7.05 
 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 
 Projected single end yarn strength in cN/tex........................:11.23 
 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 
 MEDIUM STAPLE-MEDIUM-CARDED/COMBED/ROTOR 
 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ 
       Carded Ring Spinning :  Turns per cm............: 9.05 
                               Count of yarn in tex....:19.68 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 
 Type of Fibre...........................:AFRICAN SPINLAC 
 2.5 % Span length value in mm.......................................:31.07 
 50 % Span length value in mm........................................:15.33 
 Mean Fibre Length by number in mm...................................:23.60 
 Mean Fibre Length by Fibre Weight in mm.............................:27.17 
 % of Coefficient of Fibre Length Variation by fibre number..........:38.94 
 Short Fibre Content by Fibre Number.................................: 3.79 
 Effective Length in mm..............................................:35.18 
 Upper Half Mean Length in mm........................................:31.40 
 % of Causticaire Maturity ..........................................:79.18 
 Fibre Fineness in mtex..............................................:156.39 
 Percentage of Mature fibres.........................................: 80.44 
 Fibre Strength in cN/tex at 1/8 in gauge............................:25.24 
 Classer length in 16 th of an inch..................................:19.45 
 % of Calculated non-lint content....................................: 3.79 
 Projected Neps/gram in card sliver..................................:25.15 
 % of Projected Waste lost total(blowroom+plus cards)................: 5.67 
 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 
 Projected single end yarn strength in cN/tex........................:22.54 
 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 
 MEDIUM STAPLE-MEDIUM TO LONG-CARDED/COMBED 
  
 
 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ 
       Carded Ring Spinning :  Turns per cm............: 9.05 
                               Count of yarn in tex....:19.68 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 
 Type of Fibre...........................:TCHAD RAKA 
 2.5 % Span length value in mm.......................................:28.74 
 50 % Span length value in mm........................................:13.79 
 Mean Fibre Length by number in mm...................................:21.56 
 Mean Fibre Length by Fibre Weight in mm.............................:25.09 
 % of Coefficient of Fibre Length Variation by fibre number..........:40.48 
 Short Fibre Content by Fibre Number.................................: 6.05 
 Effective Length in mm..............................................:32.66 
 Upper Half Mean Length in mm........................................:29.05 
 % of Causticaire Maturity ..........................................:79.08 
 Fibre Fineness in mtex..............................................:180.21 
 Percentage of Mature fibres.........................................: 80.30 
 Fibre Strength in cN/tex at 1/8 in gauge............................:21.41 
 Classer length in 16 th of an inch..................................:18.05 
 % of Calculated non-lint content....................................: 5.37 
 Projected Neps/gram in card sliver..................................:42.98 
 % of Projected Waste lost total(blowroom+plus cards)................: 7.16 
 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 
 Projected single end yarn strength in cN/tex........................:16.00 
 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 
 MEDIUM STAPLE-MEDIUM TO LONG-CARDED/COMBED 
 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ 
       Carded Ring Spinning :  Turns per cm............: 9.05 
                               Count of yarn in tex....:19.68 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 
 Type of Fibre...........................:TCHAD BACC 
 2.5 % Span length value in mm.......................................:27.92 
 50 % Span length value in mm........................................:13.24 
 Mean Fibre Length by number in mm...................................:20.83 
 Mean Fibre Length by Fibre Weight in mm.............................:24.36 
 % of Coefficient of Fibre Length Variation by fibre number..........:41.13 
 Short Fibre Content by Fibre Number.................................: 7.06 
 Effective Length in mm..............................................:31.77 
 Upper Half Mean Length in mm........................................:28.23 
 % of Causticaire Maturity ..........................................:79.94 
 Fibre Fineness in mtex..............................................:174.52 
 Percentage of Mature fibres.........................................: 81.48 
 Fibre Strength in cN/tex at 1/8 in gauge............................:21.49 
 Classer length in 16 th of an inch..................................:17.56 
 % of Calculated non-lint content....................................: 5.34 
 Projected Neps/gram in card sliver..................................:56.62 
 % of Projected Waste lost total(blowroom+plus cards)................: 7.13 
 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 
 Projected single end yarn strength in cN/tex........................:14.70 
 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 
 MEDIUM STAPLE-MEDIUM-CARDED/COMBED/ROTOR 
  
  
  
 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ 
       Carded Ring Spinning :  Turns per cm............: 9.05 
                               Count of yarn in tex....:19.68 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 
  
 Type of Fibre...........................:ARGENTINE DAREN 
 2.5 % Span length value in mm.......................................:28.03 
 50 % Span length value in mm........................................:13.10 
 Mean Fibre Length by number in mm...................................:20.78 
 Mean Fibre Length by Fibre Weight in mm.............................:24.44 
 % of Coefficient of Fibre Length Variation by fibre number..........:41.93 
 Short Fibre Content by Fibre Number.................................: 7.36 
 Effective Length in mm..............................................:31.95 
 Upper Half Mean Length in mm........................................:28.34 
 % of Causticaire Maturity ..........................................:74.49 
 Fibre Fineness in mtex..............................................:201.73 
 Percentage of Mature fibres.........................................: 73.71 
 Fibre Strength in cN/tex at 1/8 in gauge............................:19.42 
 Classer length in 16 th of an inch..................................:17.61 
 % of Calculated non-lint content....................................: 6.34 
 Projected Neps/gram in card sliver..................................:49.75 
 % of Projected Waste lost total(blowroom+plus cards)................: 7.99 
 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 
 Projected single end yarn strength in cN/tex........................:12.24 
 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 
 MEDIUM STAPLE-MEDIUM-CARDED/COMBED/ROTOR 
 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ 
       Carded Ring Spinning :  Turns per cm............: 9.05 
                               Count of yarn in tex....:19.68 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 
  
 Type of Fibre...........................:ARGENTINE COLLY 
 2.5 % Span length value in mm.......................................:28.08 
 50 % Span length value in mm........................................:13.41 
 Mean Fibre Length by number in mm...................................:21.02 
 Mean Fibre Length by Fibre Weight in mm.............................:24.51 
 % of Coefficient of Fibre Length Variation by fibre number..........:40.74 
 Short Fibre Content by Fibre Number.................................: 6.73 
 Effective Length in mm..............................................:31.92 
 Upper Half Mean Length in mm........................................:28.39 
 % of Causticaire Maturity ..........................................:82.27 
 Fibre Fineness in mtex..............................................:160.41 
 Percentage of Mature fibres.........................................: 84.55 
 Fibre Strength in cN/tex at 1/8 in gauge............................:22.97 
 Classer length in 16 th of an inch..................................:17.66 
 % of Calculated non-lint content....................................: 4.69 
 Projected Neps/gram in card sliver..................................:58.60 
 % of Projected Waste lost total(blowroom+plus cards)................: 6.54 
 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 
 Projected single end yarn strength in cN/tex........................:16.54 
 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 
 MEDIUM STAPLE-MEDIUM-CARDED/COMBED/ROTOR 
  
------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 
       Carded Ring Spinning :  Turns per cm............: 9.05 
                               Count of yarn in tex....:19.68 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 
 Type of Fibre...........................:CALIFORNIA T/C 
 2.5 % Span length value in mm.......................................:29.15 
 50 % Span length value in mm........................................:14.16 
 Mean Fibre Length by number in mm...................................:21.98 
 Mean Fibre Length by Fibre Weight in mm.............................:25.47 
 % of Coefficient of Fibre Length Variation by fibre number..........:39.80 
 Short Fibre Content by Fibre Number.................................: 5.41 
 Effective Length in mm..............................................:33.07 
 Upper Half Mean Length in mm........................................:29.47 
 % of Causticaire Maturity ..........................................:78.49 
 Fibre Fineness in mtex..............................................:172.24 
 Percentage of Mature fibres.........................................: 79.48 
 Fibre Strength in cN/tex at 1/8 in gauge............................:22.36 
 Classer length in 16 th of an inch..................................:18.30 
 % of Calculated non-lint content....................................: 4.95 
 Projected Neps/gram in card sliver..................................:38.47 
 % of Projected Waste lost total(blowroom+plus cards)................: 6.78 
 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 
 Projected single end yarn strength in cN/tex........................:17.78 
 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 

 MEDIUM STAPLE-MEDIUM TO LONG-CARDED/COMBED 
 
 Type  .:TOGO ALTO-S AUSTRALIAN ANDY AUSTRALIAN NICE GREECE MABAL AFRICA SPINLAC 
 SL1 ...: 28.88        29.25            29.56            27.07       31.07 
 SL2 ...: 13.79        13.11            13.78            12.04       15.33 
 LM  ...: 21.62        21.30            21.89            19.65       23.60 
 LG  ...: 25.20        25.47            25.77            23.57       27.17 
 CVN ...: 40.75        44.23            42.07            44.65       38.94 
 SFC ...:  6.08         7.43             6.19             9.62        3.79 
 LE  ...: 32.83        33.50            33.70            31.03       35.18 
 LUH .. : 29.20        29.59            29.89            27.39       31.40 
 FM1 ...: 76.96        75.97            77.73            74.46       79.18 
 HS  .. :176.42       183.49           177.32           168.56      156.39 
 PM  .. : 77.33        75.90            78.42            73.67       80.44 
 CN  .. : 21.84        21.53            22.19            21.67       25.24 
 LS  . .: 18.13        18.30            18.51            17.03       19.45 
 NLC ...:  5.18         5.32             5.03             5.26        3.79 
 NG  . .: 44.36        56.58            45.06            94.11       25.15 
 WL %..:   6.98         7.11             6.85             7.05        5.67 
 ----------------------------------------------- ---------------- ------------ 
.RKM....:16.36         14.03            16.42            11.23       22.54 
  
 
 ------------------------------------------------ ---------------- ------------ 
 Type  .: TCHAD RAKA TCHAD BACC ARGENTINE DAREN ARGENTINE COLLY CALIFORNIA T/C 
 SL1 ...::28.74     27.92     :28.03             28.08           29.15 
 SL2 ...::13.79     13.24     :13.10             13.41           14.16 
 LM  ...::21.56     20.83     :20.78             21.02           21.98 
 LG  ...::25.09     24.36     :24.44             24.51           25.47 
 CVN ...::40.48     41.13     :41.93             40.74           39.80 
 SFC ...:: 6.05      7.06     : 7.36              6.73            5.41 
 LE  ...::32.66     31.77     :31.95             31.92           33.07 
 LUH .. ::29.05     28.23     :28.34             28.39           29.47 
 FM1 ...::79.08     79.94     :74.49             82.27           78.49 
 HS  .. ::80.21    174.52    :201.73            160.41          172.24 
 PM  .. ::80.30     81.48    : 73.71             84.55           79.48 
 CN  .. ::21.41     21.49     :19.42             22.97           22.36 
 LS  . .::18.05     17.56     :17.61             17.66           18.30 
 NLC ...:: 5.37      5.34     : 6.34              4.69            4.95 
 NG  . .::42.98     56.62     :49.75             58.60           38.47 
 WL %..: : 7.16      7.13     : 7.99              6.54            6.78 
 ------------------ --------- -------------------------------- ---------- 
 RKM....::16.00     14.70     :12.24             16.54           17.78 
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

The summary of result could be envisaged by the mill management to select the most appropriate type of cotton. The tables shows that it is not the fibre class but the whole properties of fibres are of more importance.

So we have to make decision about the required yarn strength and blowroom +card loss. As it was mentioned before,most optimum cotton is not the one which projects maximum yarn strength and minimum waste loss but most optimum for the required yarn quality and end-use. Cost of raw material would depend upon

  • Cost Per kg lost cost per kg
  • Waste lost cost per kg
  • End breaks cost/per end break

So it becomes clear that cheapest cotton could become most expensive one. So all these factors should be calculated and most appropriate one should then be selected. The program gives projected waste lost total of blowroom and carding. And % of short fibre is closely related to the end-break rate.

1.2.2.2 Fibre Samples Selection for Comparison Actual and Projected Yarn Strength

The program could also be used

  • to check the type of raw material of a given type of yarn
  • to check the possible strength variation through the projected single end yarn strength
  • To check the spinning processes running correctly.

The following table has been taken from an actual mill bale-mix combination

      Actual Bale Mix,Projected Yarn Strength and Measured Yarn Strength
     Fibre Type # of bales Projected Yarn     +   Measured Yarn Strength 
                              Strength cN/tex +   cN      Frequency 
                                              + 
      TORBALI(A)  1           17.50           +   250    ***** 
      TORBALI(B)  2           16.13           +   260    ******* 
      TORBALI(C)  5           22.66           +   270    * 
      AYDIN       3           21.23           +   280    ******** 
      SALIHLI     1           19.74           +   290    ******* 
      NAZILLI     4           18.25           +   300    ******************** 
                                              +   310    ************* 
                                              +   320    ************* 
                         16-17 **             +   330    ************* 
                         17-18 *              +   340    ******* 
                         18-19 ****           +   350    ******** 
                         19-20 *              +   360 
                         20-21                +   370 
                         21-22 ***            +   380 
                         22-23 *****          +   390    *
        Projected Yarn-Strength Frequency

It is clear that if there is a high variation in the projected yarn strength then there is also a variation in the actual yarn strength. Similar trials were carried out on another cotton spinning mills where only two kinds of blends used projected and actual yarn strength variation were all small . Therefore,one can conclude that number of bales allowed in a mix should obey the bell shape distribution with minimum length of tales if one tries to achieve low CV% in yarn strength. Actual yarn strength varies between 12 to 19 cN/tex. There is also a weak portion in the frequency diagram and it is clear from both diagrams that fibre-mix is not compatible with the yarn quality. A further trial of yarn strength stroke diagram were carried out on this yarn and very low weak places were found. Actual yarn strength is lower than projected strength. Therefore,the cotton fibre parameters have been checked at the various stages of processing and the following table summarizes how the cotton fibre could be deteriorated during the manufacturing process:

Process 2.5 % Span Length in mm 50 % Span Length in mm Micronaire Range
Blend 29.81 14.81 4.1
Combed Cotton Ring Frame Front Roll Delivery   27.39 12.80 4.1
Card Flat Waste 25.66 9.83 3.7
Carded Cotton Ring Frame Front Roll Delivery 21.09 9.83 3.6
Combing Noil 20.14 9.08 3.6

It has been observed in many spinning mills in rotor and ring spinning,draft zone setting according to minimize linear irregularity of delivery product and/or to have a growth in span-length values at each stage do not necessarily lead to better quality of yarn. Any mill could make trials and see the result themselves as well. The other important point that low CV% values of linear irregularity of mass/diameter of card,draw frame sliver would may lead to high CV% of linear irregularity of yarn. Therefore,addition of irregularities would not always function correctly i.e. an irregularity added by the machine could change and increase even the input irregularity is low.

The following table summarizes the tensile test carried out on a cotton yarn made in Egypt. The type of cotton used GIZA long staple cotton.


   YARN DATA: TURNS PER CM=11.53
              COUNT        =9.66 TEX  COMBED

   TENSILE PROPERTIES:

           B-WORK        B-FORCE      CN/TEX      E%
   AVE     287.4         241.9        24.19       5.4
   CV%      15.14          8.9         8.9        8.15
  Q95%     31.3          15.4         1.54       0.29
 

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
FIBRE DATA

 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
       Combed Ring Spinning:  Turns per cm............:11.53
                               Count of yarn in tex....: 9.66
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Type of Fibre...........................:GIZA
 2.5 % Span length value in mm.......................................:34.11
 50 % Span length value in mm........................................:15.90
 Mean Fibre Length by number in mm...................................:25.26
 Mean Fibre Length by Fibre Weight in mm.............................:29.73
 % of Coefficient of Fibre Length Variation by fibre number..........:42.08
 Short Fibre Content by Fibre Number.................................: 3.65
 Effective Length in mm..............................................:38.89
 Upper Half Mean Length in mm........................................:34.49
 % of Causticaire Maturity ..........................................:81.73
 Fibre Fineness in mtex..............................................:142.44
 Percentage of Mature fibres.........................................: 83.85
 Fibre Strength in cN/tex at 1/8 in gauge............................:29.44
 Classer length in 16 th of an inch..................................:21.15
 % of Calculated non-lint content....................................: 2.35
 Projected Neps/gram in card sliver..................................:25.21
 % of Projected Waste lost total(blowroom+plus cards)................: 4.11
 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Projected single end yarn strength in cN/tex........................:24.05
 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 LONG STAPLE-LONG-CARDED/COMBED
 

Actual yarn strength varies between 22.65 to 25.73 cN/tex and projected yarn strength is 24.05 cN/tex. One could clearly say that this spinning process running quite well. It is also interesting to note that no fibre breakage were noticed in ring frame when spun with Giza Cotton.


2.0 Summary and Conclusions

These PC-PROGRAMS have been designed to help cotton spinners to achieve optimum yarn quality with optimum cost. Yarn strength and its variation are key parameters in spinning. But one should be also aware of the fibre and yarn elastic modulu and its variation. Because,this parameters influence the weaving and knitting performance of yarn. It is also very clear that these PC-PROGRAMS could be a very useful tool for a spinner. And we would be very pleased to help any spinning mill to for the above mentioned items.

Requirements :

MS Windows Operating Systems: XP, Vista , Windows 7 (32 Bit)

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Products are available for Pay Pal Payment Method Price in USD
Weaving Mill Manager ver 1.0  749
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E-Learning Course for Cotton Fiber Testing and Processing

This E-Learning Course is a team work training for Process Improvement and Cost Reductions for Spinning and Ginning Mills with Itru UAK-1 + Fibre/Fabric Information System and Yarn Process Engineering ver1.1 Software. Read More

Fiber Mix selection : Selection of fiber mix according to required spinning data (yarn count , process and twist)

 

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