Time Studies ver 1.0 with New Supplements Spinning and Weaving


This high-tech textile report has been prepared for mainly Spinning and Weaving mills to assist them to increase their productivity. It also covers spread sheet samples of calculation for production, efficiency, work load and time studies .It has a data base which is based upon knowledge base and also intelligent which includes text ,pictures and graphics. It has been prepared through hard work carried out Spinning and weaving mills. It can be used as hand book for guidance of technical management and also and exercise book in electronic format. As an Itru Group Ltd we are also working on new interactive e-books for service of textile industry. We are sure that these e-books would also be useful to students and universities for new teaching methods. According our experience in mill training we have found two important ways of learning these are teaching and team work .It can be clearly said that the best way of learning is to learn together and also teach what you have learnt. So the instructions given in the report must be studied first and then discussed in a meeting, must be taught to others in the team than action plan should be prepared according to the outlines given in the report. We are sure that if the above mentioned items are carried out in any spinning and weaving mills there could be substantial increase in efficiency, productivity and production volumes.

2- Construction of the Report

This report has been prepared as a knowledge based pc-program so it is user friendly , interactive and covers many exercises on spread sheet format. Exercises also could be used as a check list for measuring productivity in actual mill running conditions. Productivity is very important for developing and also developed countries. Except garment manufacturing direct labor costs do not contribute much of the total manufacturing costs . However, manufacturing costs directly depend upon the production volume i.e. productivity . So time studies and the forms and outlines and work plan given in report are guidance to achieve higher productivity in any textile mill.

This pc-program covers the high tech textile report arranged with

  • Interactive
  • Intelligent Data Base (Intelligent Knowledge Based Data base-Text and pictures )
  • Spread sheets
  • Indexed chapters and subchapters

This high-tech Textile Report has been prepared by ITRU GROUP LTD-International Textile Consulting & Management firm through extensive work carried out in the spinning and weaving mills. The purpose of this report is to increase the productivity levels in spinning and weaving mills. The productivity of a textile mill could only be increased by extensive time studies and proper work load assignment as well as solving the problems related to the mill performance. Labour costs contribute to the total cost of any product to some extent. However, labor costs could only be reduced not only by reducing the number of operatives but increasing the production levels per operative .And this is only possible with scientific approach to the problems related to the productivity .This technical report outlines the main principles of work load assignment as well as giving suggestions to minimise the shortcomings that could happen in actual mill running conditions. This High -Tech Textile report would also make clear the technical and operative problems that cause an obstruction when achieving a higher productivity level .Therefore, this report would be useful to any textile mill who wishes to improve their mill performance and reduce labor costs at the same time increasing the production capacity by eliminating the existing problems .It has been observed in many mills that time studies would only be useful if they are used to solve the problems related to mill performance level. However, we have used this method to determine the operative and technical problems so that higher productivity level could be achieved. The report covers spinning, winding and weaving sections. HIGH-TECH TEXTILE REPORT H-TR-TM-#042 [TEXTILE MANAGEMENT] also outlines the main measures and guidelines should be taken to increase the production volumes in spinning and weaving mills.

3. Contents of this program and the report

The intelligent data base covers following chapters and subchapters


a Productivity Analyses in Spinning
b Productivity in Winding Department
c Productivity in Weaving Department

2 Machine Interference

a. Ancillary Work

3. Time Studies

a. Spinning

4. Time Studies in Weaving

a. Analysis of long term weaver section report
b. Terms related to production calculations
c. Weaver efficiency analysis

5 Comparison between therotically determined weaver efficiency values

a.Correlation of stops per loom hour and mean stop of duration
b. Correlation between weaver efficiency

6 Work load assigment systems

7 Weaving Training

a. Attention Time Stopped Looms

8. Patrolling and Inspection

8 Measures to improve productivity

a. Spinning
b. Weaving
c. Mill Performance Level Analyses for Weaving Mills
d. Knowledge Based Mill Management of Weaving Shed
e. Stoppages and their causes in weaving mills

9 Spinning Project

a. Knowledge Based Quality Management

4. Introducion to Productivity Analyses in Textile Industry and Importance of Time Studies as a guidance to increase productivity

Productivity in any textile mill could be taken as an indication of the mill performance level. As the productivity increases product cost reduces which in turn raises the standard contribution. Expression of productivity would vary from section to section of textile mills. But it could be described as total hours worked including over time per unit of product produced. The product unit could be kg, meters, picks, trousers etc. In order to have high productivity one must have a well organised mill as well as extensive time studies to eliminate the existing problems.

The productivity of any section of a textile mill could be calculated if the following information is obtained:

  • Total number of employees in the mill
  • Total number of hours worked in a given period of time
  • Total production in a given period of time

Therefore, the productivity is not simply related to the machine operatives but every personnel who are on the factory floor. Hence, time studies should cover every person in the mill and mill manager should have the performance record each person working in the mill.

4.1. Productivity Analyses in Spinning

Productivity in a spinning mill could be analysed as total or at each section of the process. Cotton system spinning could be divided into mainly three groups:

  • Carded ring spinning
  • Combed ring spinning
  • Rotor spinning

Productivity comparison between different mills could only be carried out on the identical spinning systems. Productivity of spinning mill is related to total operative hours necessary to produce 100 kg of yarn. Production is affected by spindle speed, yarn twist per meter, end break rate, out of production hours, ring diameter, doffing time and type (auto-doffing or manual) and personnel organisation.

Productivity reduces with mill efficiency. Hence mill performance is closely related to the total operative hours worked to produce a constant amount of production.

4.2. Productivity in Winding

Productivity in winding department is influenced by many factors which could be summarised as:

  • Machine efficiency
  • Operative performance
  • Count of yarn
  • Machine speed

4.3. Productivity in weaving department

Productivity in weaving department could be expressed from several different aspects. One could take meters of fabric produced per operative hour or total operative hours necessary to insert one million of picks. It could be said that no of picks inserted could be considered a better approach to the productivity concept. Since meters per operative hour is influenced by the pick per cm i.e. weft density. Hence, it would be much more realistic to consider operative hours necessary to produce 1 million picks which could be denoted as H.O.P( Operative hours per million picks).

4.4. Time Studies

Time studies is a powerful tool to increase productivity. Only after then a novelty could take place in a mill. Productivity by no means could be increased by just reducing the number of operatives. On the other hand by reducing the stoppages and increasing the performance of the operatives a substantial improvements could be made. Time studies would give valuable information about the existing problems related to mill performance so that the necessary measures could be taken to eliminate the disturbing points. In this case, main attention should be first directed towards to the factors which increases operative work load. It is clear that productivity could only be increased by reducing the operative work load so that more looms or spindles could be allocated per operative. It must be born in mind that work load per operative mainly depends upon the frequency of attention and waiting time per stop and performance of the operative.

Time studies in any textile mill whether it is a spinning, weaving or a garment manufacturing mill should be carried out to determine the proper work load assignment as well as solving the problems related to the productivity. Time studies would make clear the potential areas where possible automation could take place especially where manual work is high examples to these doffing at ring frames, packing of winding packages etc. Hence, time studies become a useful tool to improve the mill performance of any section of a textile mill.

4.5. Time studies in spinning mills

Efficiency of ring or rotor spinning largely depends upon the end-breaks per thousand spindle hour and spinner cycle time in minutes. Spinners cycle time is influences by end-break rate and patrolling speed of the spinner. As the end-break rate increases spinner cycle time in minutes also increases since the operator has to attend more idle spindles. The patrolling performance of the spinner is closely related to end break per 1000 spindle hour.

4.6. Time studies in weaving mills

Number of looms that could be allocated to per weaver would depend upon the weaving shed running conditions. However, number of looms per weaver will vary according to the several factors which could be summarised as :

  • labor cost per loom hour
  • short stops per loom hour
  • machine costs per loom hour
  • required profitability

Sometimes one needs high machine utilization if the labor costs are low and sometimes high operative utilization. In any case, all the mills should aim to lower labor costs and at the same time increasing the efficiency i.e. high productivity. Hence, assigning the looms to a weaver is not a simple operation that one could expect. Optimum work load assignment could only be carried out after extensive time studies and productivity analysis. Time studies carried out on weavers performance would reveal valuable information about the existing mill problems as well as put an emphasise on the weaver training. It has been observed in many mills that training of weavers would definitely increase the existing production and improve fabric quality. Time studies would bring into forth the performances among weavers.

4.The Procedures for Application of Time Studies into your Spinning and Weaving Mills

PHASE A: Report Study and Implementation

1- Order the Time Studies ver 1.0

2- Select a teacher from your technical personnel let him(her) to study the report from beginning to end

3- The teacher should train the technical personnel

4- Select another teacher to study the report . This new teacher should train again the technical personnel

5- Make a Work Plan for the Implementation of the report .

6- Implement the work plan step by step and record the progress for each action

PHASE B: Spread Sheet Calculation Tables with Charts Practical Applications

Time Studies includes work Sheet Examples to control efficiency,productivity , stoppages and work load assignment in spread sheet formats . There are tests should be carried out in mills.

For Spinning :

-Carry out Spinners performance Test
-Carry out Number of spindles allocated per Spinner Test
-Carry out Number of Spindles allocated per Operative in Roving Frame Test
-Carry out Winding Performance Test and Number of Heads per Operative Test
-Carry out Standard Number of Heads Per Operative Test
-Check your entire spinning mill with Itru Standards Monthly Analyses

For Weaving :
- Weaver Performance Test
- Long Time Weaver Report Analyses
-Work Load & Production Efficiency and Number of Looms Analyses Tests
-Number of looms and Operative and Machine Utilization Tests
-Analyses of Effect of Machine Interference upon Efficiency on your tests values
-Check your standards Stop Loom per hour upon PRDN % and number of loom allocated to weaver Table
-Make use of Monthly Control Table to control your weaving Shed with Charts

If you send an e-mail about the progresses or encountered problems then technical support will be given free of charge .

This mill work if applied with Itru Knowledged Based QCC-Systems will definetely achieve more progress in your mill.

Teaching-Training and Mill Practices

The core of the system is Learning Path, which covers

  1. Reading Chapters
  2. Understanding examples
  3. Mill training of employees according to results
  4. Submitting assignments to course administrator and further reading related documents and prepare Home Works
  5. Submitting questions and answers to Company QCC. (Quality Control Circles)
  6. Suggestions new subjects to main course to be included or excluded

5 -Support

Training course has self-supporting system. Each candidate will submit their questions to QCC and will be answered by the QCC course Administrator.

6 - Human and Physical Resources

Time Studies ver 1.0 with New Suplements Software , Spread Sheet Examples and practical mill samples applications.

7-Summary and Conclusions

We have developed this interactive e-book for the service of textile industry and for also to the benefit of education institutions. to assist them to increase their productivity with very low cost compare to high consultancy expenses existing today . We would be very pleased to receive comments from mills when they actually used in mill practice.

The R&D project is intended for increase ring production level. Increasing Production level is provided by optimum quality, minimum costs and increasing productivity. The important factor is machine for determining Ring production levels.

We are sure that an increase in efficiency and production levels will be achieved in any spinning & weaving mills if the instructions given in the report are applied in correct manner and given standard procedures are followed with strict adherence.

How to Order

Order Form For Time Studies ver 1.0 Interactive Textile Report

Delivery ,Order and Payment:

1- Fill in the form and press Submit Button





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2-Make your payment to Itru Group Ltd Pay Pal Account or Bank Transfer amounting USD 449 (Explanation Itru Time Studies ver 1.3 New Supplements

Required information will be mailed to you for the instructions to use the software

3- Delivery after receiving your payment . The software will be mailed to you in USB Flash disk

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1) Simply send an e-mail to writing your delivery information as mentioned above.

2) Send an e-mail to that you have transfered the cost of report to Itru Group Ltd .

3) Delivery : After receiving payment of USD 449 (including portage and packing) Banktransfer to the name of ITRU GROUP Ltd YAPI KREDI BANKASI A.S 399-SIRINEVLER SUBESI ISTANBUL-TURKIYE A/C NO:693 928 62

Free Training Support for 2 days is provided at Itru Training Center in Istanbul for Application of Knowledge Based Pc-Programs in Textile Mills for the following pc-programs and information systems .

Card Fibre Transfer Test - Fabric Setting- Spinning Mill Data Bank - Itru Fibre Tester UAK-1 + - Comber Data-Fibre Mix Selection-Size Data- Spinning Geometry- Ring Spinning Performance- Yield Performance- Spin Plan -QC-RS ver 2.0 -Prnd Ring Ver 2.0 -

Order these Pc-Programs and Information Systems and get free training and solve your mill problems.

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Itru Group Ltd reserves the rights of alterations to any pc-program and any report without given any notice.

Requirements :

Ms-windows Operating System XP,Vista or Windows 7 (32bit)

Read Instructions for installation and running 32 bits programs on (64 bits)

Actual Number of Looms per Weaver
Maximum Number of Looms per Weaver
Maximum Number of Loom Distribution %
Prdn Chart
Time Studies - Weaver Efficiency
Introduction-Introduction to Time Studies
Weaver Efficiency Input
Weaver Efficiency Output
Work Load Spread Sheet
Time Studies with New Supplements

Itru Time Studies

Itru Time Studies is an efficient tool for improving your productivity in spinning and weaving mills